I. The Role of the United Nations (UN)
The international situation continues to undergo complex and profound changes. Multi-polarity and economic globalization are deepening. New breakthroughs in scientific and technological revolution are in the making and the impact of information technology is on the rise. Countries are more closely linked and interdependent. Emerging economies and developing countries are becoming stronger. Peace and development remains the theme of the times. Exchanges, dialogues and cooperation between countries are deepening. To pursue peace, development and cooperation has become the shared aspiration and unwavering goal of people of all countries. At the same time, regional hotspot issues keep flaring up, and turbulence continues in West Asia and North Africa. Terrorist activities are rampant and the situation of non-proliferation remains serious. Global challenges such as climate change, food security and energy security are becoming more pronounced. The European debt crisis is yet to be resolved and the world economic recovery faces risks. The prospect for attaining all the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on time is not optimistic. To uphold world peace and promote common development remains a daunting task.
The UN, as the most inclusive, representative and authoritative inter-governmental organization, is an important institution and platform for advancing multilateral cooperation. It plays an irreplaceable role in international affairs. Under the new circumstances, the international community expects to see a bigger role of the UN in upholding world peace, promoting common development and strengthening international cooperation.
China has always advocated, supported and practiced multilateralism and made great endeavor to promote the UN's central role in international affairs. China will continue to actively participate in UN activities in various fields, safeguard the authority of the UN and firmly uphold the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. China will support the UN in playing a bigger role in development and other relevant areas and encourage the UN to pay close attention to protecting the interests of developing countries and make greater contribution to the building of a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.
II. UN Reform
China supports necessary and reasonable reform of the UN so as to enhance its authority and efficiency, strengthen its capacity for addressing new threats and challenges, and enable it to better fulfill the responsibilities entrusted by the Charter of the United Nations. Reform should give developing countries more voice in international affairs, as this will help the UN play a bigger role in coordinating international efforts to respond to global challenges. Reform should be advanced in a balanced manner in security, development and human rights. More attention should be given to development so that it will have more support in terms of institutions and resources. Earnest efforts should be made to implement the MDGs, as this serves the common interests of developing countries.
China supports necessary and reasonable reform to the Security Council so that it will enjoy more authority and efficiency and better fulfill the responsibilities for maintaining international peace and security bestowed on it by the Charter of the United Nations. The priority of the Security Council reform should be on increasing the representation of developing countries, especially African countries, in the Security Council so that small and medium-sized countries will have more opportunities to sit on the Security Council in turns, participate in its decision-making, and play a bigger role in the Security Council. This is in the fundamental interests of small and medium-sized countries which make up the majority of UN member states. Given the broad agenda of the Security Council reform, it is important to continue with democratic and patient consultations to accommodate the interests and concerns of all parties, seek a package solution and reach the broadest possible agreement. The "step-by-step" or "piecemeal" approach will lead us nowhere and will only ruin the atmosphere of democratic consultations for reform. It is the shared responsibility of all UN member states to move Security Council reform in a way that is conducive to the overall interests of the UN and the unity of its member states. China will continue to work with all other countries toward this goal.
III. Political and Security Issues
1. Peacekeeping Operations
UN peacekeeping operations are an important and effective means for maintaining international peace and security. The peacekeeping operations, given their expanded scale and broadened mandate, are facing growing challenges today. China is a strong supporter of and active participant in UN peacekeeping operations. China maintains that in conducting peacekeeping operations, it is important to strictly abide by and carry out the mandate of relevant Security Council resolutions, adhere to the three principles of "consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force except in self-defense" put forward by former UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjold, respect the will and choice of the host country, strengthen operation planning, set out clear priorities, and coordinate actions to form synergy. There should be better coordination between peacekeeping, peacemaking and peacebuilding. The UN should place greater emphasis on enhancing cooperation with regional and sub-regional organizations, and pay more attention to the needs of African countries in its peacekeeping operations.
China attaches importance to and actively participates in UN peacekeeping operations. To date, China has sent over 20,000 military personnel, policemen and civilian officials to UN peacekeeping operations. At present, there are nearly 2,000 Chinese peacekeepers on duty, making China a leading peacekeeper contributor among the five permanent members of the Security Council and the 16th largest troop-contributing country in the world.
Peacebuilding helps eliminate the root cause of conflicts, and plays a significant role in realizing lasting peace and stability in relevant countries and regions. As the first agency in the UN system entrusted with the responsibility of coordinating post-conflict rebuilding, the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) has played an important role in helping with the rebuilding of post-conflict countries. China supports the UN's leading role in post-conflict rebuilding and the work of the PBC and the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF). The PBC should fully respect the independent rights of the countries concerned, support their efforts in collecting resources and make better use of the PBF. The PBC should improve its work method and efficiency, further strengthen internal institutions and, at the same time, enhance coordination and cooperation with the General Assembly, the Security Council and other major agencies as well as international financial institutions and regional organizations. China will continue to support the work of the PBC.
3. Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict
China is deeply concerned about the threat and loss caused by armed conflict to the life and property of civilians, and urges the parties concerned to abide by international law and the relevant Security Council resolutions in good faith and give full protection to civilians caught up in armed conflict.
According to the Charter of the United Nations and the international humanitarian law, the responsibility to protect civilians rests first and foremost with the government of the country concerned. When providing assistance, the international community should adhere to the principles of "impartiality, objectiveness and neutrality", obtain the consent of the host country, fully respect its sovereignty and territorial integrity, and refrain from interfering in local political disputes or impeding the peace process.
The protection of civilians should be incorporated into the political process aimed at seeking peaceful solutions to conflict. It should also be given priority in post-conflict rebuilding. The relevant UN agencies should strengthen coordination and form synergy in this respect.
Terrorism is the common enemy of the world. The international community has scaled up input, reached broader consensus, carried out deeper cooperation and made substantial progress in the fight against terrorism. Yet on the other hand, the breeding ground for terrorism has not been removed, the terrorist threats to the international community are far from disappearing, and the international counter-terrorism situation remains as grave as ever.
China maintains that the international community should carry out cooperation to combat terrorism in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, international law and other universally recognized norms governing international relations. The UN and its Security Council should play a leading and coordinating role in the battle against terrorism. A holistic approach that addresses both the symptoms and root causes of terrorism should be adopted to remove the breeding ground for terrorism with the integrated use of political, economic and diplomatic means. China opposes the practice of double standards or linking terrorism to specific countries, ethnic groups or religions.
China is a victim of terrorism. The "Eastern Turkestan Islamic Movement" and other "Eastern Turkestan" terrorist forces have long been plotting and instigating violent terrorist attacks against the Chinese government and people. The fight against the "Eastern Turkestan" terrorist forces is an important part of the international anti-terrorism campaign. China will continue to take an active part in international counter-terrorism cooperation and work with all countries to fight the "Eastern Turkestan" and other international terrorist forces.
5. Situation on the Korean Peninsula
To uphold peace and stability and achieve the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula serves the common interests of all parties concerned and represents the call of the international community. China holds the view that dialogue and consultation is the only effective way to resolve the relevant issues, and that the Six-Party Talks is an effective platform for addressing the concerns of the parties in a balanced manner and achieving denuclearization of the Peninsula. China hopes that the parties will maintain contact and dialogue, stay committed to resolving differences through negotiation and resume the Six-Party Talks at an early date. China is ready to work with the other parties to continue to play a constructive role in this process.
To maintain stability and development is in the interest of Myanmar and conducive to peace and stability of the region. The progress made by the government of Myanmar in advancing domestic reform and improving external relations should be welcomed and recognized. China has all along encouraged Myanmar to advance the process of political and national reconciliation and called on relevant countries to lift all sanctions on Myanmar at an early date. The international community should respect the development path independently chosen by the people of Myanmar, and play a constructive role in bringing about stability and development in Myanmar.
The situation in Afghanistan concerns peace and stability in the region and the world at large and affects the progress of the international counter-terrorism effort. Afghanistan has made positive progress in peace and reconstruction, but still faces many difficulties and challenges. It requires the efforts of both Afghanistan and the international community to bring about a peaceful, stable, independent Afghanistan that enjoys development.
China has consistently supported and actively participated in Afghanistan's peace and reconstruction process. We support the reconciliation and reintegration plan led by the Afghan government and we support Afghanistan in developing closer cooperation with countries in the region, strengthening capacity-building and improving security environment. The relevant parties should create conditions for the Afghan government to take over security responsibilities, honor commitment of assistance to Afghanistan's economic and social development, and gradually and smoothly transfer security responsibilities to Afghanistan on the basis of ensuring peace and stability in the country. The international community should strengthen coordination and collaboration and work together to realize the goal of "Afghan people governing Afghanistan".
8. Iranian Nuclear Issue
China supports the upholding of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, and calls for an appropriate solution to the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation in order to maintain peace and stability in the Middle East. As a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), Iran has the right to the peaceful use of nuclear energy and should at the same time fulfill relevant international non-proliferation obligations.
China believes that dialogue and negotiation not only is the right way to properly resolve the Iranian nuclear issue but also serves the fundamental interests of all parties. Under the current situation, the relevant parties should step up diplomatic efforts, adopt a flexible and pragmatic attitude, seek common ground while resolving differences, and push for progress in dialogue and negotiation as soon as possible.
China has always worked actively to promote peace and encourage dialogue for resolving the Iranian issue. Bearing in mind the overall interests of upholding the international nuclear non-proliferation regime and peace and stability in the Middle East, we will work with the other parties to play a constructive role in finding a comprehensive, long-term and appropriate solution to this issue.
9. Situation in West Asia and North Africa
Over the past one year and more, major changes have taken place in some countries in West Asia and North Africa. To bring about peace, stability, development and prosperity in the region serves the interest of not only the countries in the region but also the entire international community. China respects the desire and aspiration of the people in the region for reform and change, supports regional countries and their people in exploring a development path suited to their national conditions, and hopes that the relevant parties in the countries of the region will settle their differences through inclusive and peaceful political dialogue. China maintains that the international community should adhere to the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the basic norms governing international relations, respect the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of regional countries, and play a positive and constructive role in easing tension in the region. China opposes external military interference or forced "regime change". China hopes that the international community will place high importance on advancing the Middle East peace process, step up economic assistance and enhance cooperation with the region to create favorable conditions for its stability and development. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a responsible country, China is ready to work with the international community to contribute to peace, stability and development in West Asia and North Africa.
China has always supported the Middle East peace process. It is China's long-held position that the parties concerned on the Middle East issue should properly solve their disputes through political and diplomatic means on the basis of relevant UN resolutions, the principle of "land for peace", the Arab Peace Initiative and the Middle East Roadmap with the goal of ultimately establishing an independent Palestinian state and achieving normalization of relations between Israel and all Arab countries.
China is deeply concerned about the stalled Palestinian-Israeli peace talks and appeals to all parties concerned to proceed from the well-being of the Palestinian and Israeli people and peace and stability in the region, take credible steps to remove obstacles, rebuild trust and work for the early resumption and substantive progress of the talks. China supports the Palestinian people's efforts to establish an independent Palestinian state that enjoys full sovereignty, with East Jerusalem as its capital and based on the 1967 border. We support Palestine in joining the UN and other international organizations. We support different Palestinian factions in continuing to press ahead with internal reconciliation, strengthen unity and cooperation, and play a positive role in the Middle East peace process. The Syria-Israel track and Lebanon-Israel track are important components of the Middle East peace process and deserve similar attention and commitment. China will work with the international community for an early, just, comprehensive and lasting settlement of the Middle East issue.
China has been following the developments in Syria closely and is deeply worried about the worsening situation in the country. China opposes and condemns all forms of terrorism and violence against innocent civilians. We believe that sticking to the goal of political settlement holds the key to a fundamental solution to the Syrian issue, and the priority now is to urge all parties in Syria to cease fire and stop violence immediately and completely, implement Annan's six-point proposal, relevant UN Security Council resolutions and the communiqué of the foreign ministers' meeting of the Action Group on Syria, and start a Syrian-led, inclusive political transitions as soon as possible. The actions taken by the international community should comply with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and the basic norms governing international relations, and help reduce tensions in Syria, resolve differences through political dialogue and safeguard peace and stability in the Middle East.
China has always maintained an objective and just position and a responsible attitude on the Syrian issue. China respects the choice of the Syrian people and is committed to protecting their fundamental interests. China has always made active efforts to promote peace and encourage dialogue and firmly supported mediation efforts that are aimed at resolving the Syrian issue through political means. We welcome the appointment of Mr. Brahimi as the UN-Arab League Joint Special Representative for Syria and will support his impartial mediation efforts. China is deeply concerned about the humanitarian situation in Syria and will continue to provide humanitarian assistance to the Syrian people as its ability permits. At the same time, we oppose interference in the country's internal affairs or military intervention under the mask of "humanitarian" support. China stands ready to work with the relevant parties of the international community to promote a just, peaceful and proper settlement of the Syrian issue at an early date.
Libya is at a crucial stage of political transition. The election of the General National Congress was held smoothly. The "National Transitional Council" transferred power to the General National Congress peacefully. This marks an important step in the political transition process and will have a major impact on the political landscape of Libya in the future. At the same time, Libya is still confronted with a myriad of challenges in achieving national reconciliation, upholding the unity of the country and healing the wounds of war.
China has always respected the will and choice of the Libyan people and believes that the Libyan people have the wisdom and ability to establish a political system and development path suited to their own national conditions. We hope that Libya will continue to push forward the inclusive political process, restore stability as soon as possible and realize national reconciliation at an early date so as to enable its people to lead a happy and tranquil life. The international community should fully respect the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Libya and provide concrete assistance to Libya within the UN framework in its post-conflict reconstruction.
China supports the efforts by various parties to restore stability and push forward a smooth power transition in Libya. China will continue to work with the international community for early reconciliation and reconstruction in Libya.
With the concerted efforts of the international community, progress has been made in the political transition and economic reconstruction of Yemen. China has always supported Yemen in pursuing stability, progress and development. China maintains that Yemen's sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity should be upheld, the principle of non-interference in internal affairs should be observed and the development path and model independently chosen by the people of Yemen should be respected. We are of the view that the political transition in Yemen should be led by the country itself. We support the efforts made by the UN, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and other members of the international community to assist the transition process in Yemen. We hope all parties in Yemen will continue to earnestly implement the GCC initiative and the content of its implementation mechanism, resolve differences through dialogue, consultation and other peaceful means so as to bring about stability and development in the country.
China enjoys traditional friendship with Yemen and has over the years provided assistance to the best of its ability to help Yemen achieve economic and social development and improve people's well-being. In the past two years, China has provided Yemen with several tranches of humanitarian assistance both in kind and in cash to help ease the humanitarian crisis and support economic and social development in Yemen. China will work with the international community to promote a peaceful and orderly political transition in Yemen and continue to play a constructive role in helping Yemen achieve development and stability at an early date.
14. Sudan and South Sudan
Tension between Sudan and South Sudan has somewhat eased recently. The two sides have conducted several rounds of negotiations in accordance with the AU roadmap and relevant UN Security Council resolutions and made positive progress. China welcomes this development and appreciates the efforts made by the international community, the AU in particular, and the pragmatic, flexible and responsible attitude of the two sides towards the negotiations. We hope the two sides will bear in mind the fundamental interests of the two peoples and the larger picture of regional stability, display greater political courage, actively cooperate with the mediation efforts of the international community, maintain the sound momentum of negotiations and properly resolve their differences as soon as possible. The international community should continue to support dialogue between the two sides and work to ensure peace and stability in Sudan, South Sudan and the region as a whole.
China supports the political settlement of the Darfur issue and maintains that the role of the UN-AU-Government of Sudan tripartite mechanism as the main channel should be brought into full play and the "dual-track" strategy of peacekeeping deployment and political negotiation should be advanced in a balanced way. China welcomes the peace agreement between the Sudanese government and the Liberation and Justice Movement and encourages other opposition groups in Darfur to join the political negotiation process at an early date. The international community should help Sudan improve the humanitarian and security situation in Darfur so as to realize peace, stability and development in the region as soon as possible.
China has engaged with Sudan and South Sudan through various means and is committed to promoting peace and encouraging talks. We have provided free assistance to Sudan and South Sudan, organized training for personnel from the two countries and participated in its development. China has provided Darfur with humanitarian and development assistance as its ability permits and donated funds to both the AU and UN trust funds. China has also actively participated in the UN Mission in Sudan, the AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur and the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan. China will work with the international community to continue to play a positive and constructive role in promoting peace, stability and development of Sudan and South Sudan.
China welcomes the important and positive progress Somalia has made in the political and security fields and hopes that the Somali government and people will seize the existing opportunities to achieve durable peace and national reconstruction at an early date.
China commends the positive role played by the UN in pushing forward the Somali peace process. The international community should intensify support for Somalia, honor its commitment of assistance and increase support for the AU Mission in Somalia.
China has always supported the Somali peace process and provided assistance to the Transitional Federal Government to the best of its ability. China will continue to support the efforts of the UN, the AU and African countries in resolving the Somali issue and work with the international community to play a constructive role in advancing the Somali peace process and starting Somali reconstruction.
16. Democratic Republic of the Congo
China is deeply concerned about the worsening security and humanitarian situation in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in the recent period. China condemns the acts of rebel groups that undermine the security and stability in the east of the DRC, and urges the illegal armed groups in the east of the country to immediately stop all forms of violence. We hope that the relevant countries in the region will continue to enhance dialogue and consultation, properly settle their differences and work together to maintain peace, stability and development of the region. China will work with the international community to play a constructive role in resolving the issues related to the situation in the east of DRC.
Through the mediation of the AU, the Economic Community of West African States and other relevant parties, Mali has made positive progress in restoring constitutional rule. China hopes that the various parties in Mali will strengthen unity, complete the political transition process, properly resolve the secession crisis in the north and safeguard national and ethnic unity. China will continue to work with the international community to play a positive role to this end.
18. Guinea Bissau
China has noticed that a transitional government was established after the coup d'état in Guinea Bissau. We hope that all parties in Guinea Bissau will focus on the long-term interests of the country and the people, and continue to properly settle political differences through inclusive dialogue and maintain social stability. We support the positive efforts of relevant regional organizations and countries to restore constitutional rule and uphold peace in Guinea Bissau and hope that the international community will enhance coordination to this end. China is ready to continue to play a constructive role in promoting long-term stability in Guinea Bissau.
China supports the international community's efforts to restore social stability and promote sustainable development in Haiti. As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has all along supported and actively participated in the UN peacekeeping operations in Haiti and encouraged the Security Council to play a constructive role on the issue of Haiti. The Chinese government and people expressed concerns for Haiti when it was hit by an earthquake in 2010. China provided Haiti with cash, material, medical and rescue assistance in a humanitarian and internationalist spirit despite the absence of diplomatic relations between the two countries. China will continue to support the UN in playing a leading role in safeguarding security and stability in Haiti and coordinating the reconstruction efforts. China is ready to work together with the international community to help the people of Haiti overcome the difficulties and rebuild their home as early as possible.
IV. Development Issues
1. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
The MDGs serve as an important framework for international development cooperation. Over the years, the international community has made substantial efforts and achieved some progress in meeting the MDGs. But globally, the implementation of the MDGs is very unbalanced. Developing countries face a myriad of difficulties in fulfilling the MDGs on time.
The international community should not slacken its efforts to push for the attainment of MDGs. Developed countries should actively fulfill their pledges on financial assistance, technology transfer and capacity building and focus on helping developing countries, least developed countries in particular, achieve development and eradicate poverty. Developing countries should also take concrete actions in line with their national conditions to achieve development. The UN should continue to play a central role in international development cooperation and provide institutional guarantee for the realization of the MDGs.
2. Environment and Sustainable Development
Sustainable development is closely linked to the long-term and immediate interests of all countries. The UN held the Conference on Environment and Development and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 1992 and 2002 respectively, which provided the international community and countries around the world with the action plans and measures for achieving sustainable development.
In June 2012, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Against the difficulties facing the world economy and international development cooperation, the Conference sent a positive, clear and strong message of revitalizing international cooperation on sustainable development and injected new momentum into the global process of sustainable development.
Thanks to the joint effort of all countries, the Conference adopted an outcome document entitled "The Future We Want", which demonstrates the cooperative spirit of the international community to overcome differences for the common interests of mankind and the well-being of future generations. The outcome document is comprehensive, positive and balanced and reflective of the important consensus on future sustainable development, including reiterating the principle of "common but differentiated responsibilities", starting a process of establishing sustainable development goals, encouraging countries to adopt green economic policies in accordance with their respective national conditions and development stages, establishing a high-level political forum on sustainable development and urging developed countries to fulfill their pledges on official development assistance. These important outcomes are of significant value in charting the course for sustainable development in the future.
China believes that the decision of the Conference to launch an intergovernmental process on sustainable development goals has sent an important and positive signal for strengthening international cooperation on sustainable development and provided an important guidance for establishing the post-2015 international development agenda. China supports and will actively participate in this process. We are ready to contribute our strength and wisdom to advancing the process on sustainable development goals, and we hope that the relevant process will truly help developing countries meet the MDGs and achieve sustainable development.
China supports the General Assembly's decision to strengthen the function of the UN Environment Program and will actively take part in the high-level political forum on sustainable development. China is of the view that the high-level political forum should properly balance economic and social development with environmental protection, raise the voice and decision-making power of developing countries, and give priority to resolving the real difficulties facing developing countries, such as finance, technology and capacity building.
3. Climate Change
Climate change is a severe challenge for the whole of mankind. It bears on human survival and the interests of all countries, and affects world equity and justice. The international community should enhance cooperation to meet this challenge together. China welcomes the outcomes of the Durban Climate Change Conference held at the end of 2011. We hope that developed countries will demonstrate political sincerity to further cut emissions, conclude the negotiation on the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol at this year's Doha Climate Change Conference and earnestly fulfill their financial and technology transfer commitments.
The Chinese government has always attached great importance to climate change. Bearing in mind the interest of the Chinese people and the long-term development of mankind, China has adopted a series of strong measures to tackle climate change and achieved notable results. The 12th Five-Year Plan adopted by China's National People's Congress incorporated mandatory targets for tackling climate change and introduced the concept of "green and low-carbon development". This is the model chosen by the Chinese government for its future development and an important contribution to the global efforts against climate change. We will continue to play a positive and constructive part in international negotiations and, based on the principle of fairness and "common but differentiated responsibilities", and with full considerations of the historical responsibilities of developed countries and the needs of developing countries for sustainable development, work with all the other parties to advance international negotiations on climate change and build a fair and reasonable system for international cooperation on climate change.
4. Food Security
Food security has always been an issue of paramount importance for mankind's survival and development. "Food security for all" is a basic human right. Currently, food security in the world is increasingly affected by non-traditional challenges and the situation is ever more complex. Developing countries are the weak link for ensuring world food security. The impact of biofuel production on food security is not to be overlooked, and climate change is also posing a long-term challenge to securing global food supply.
China takes agriculture and food security very seriously. We have followed the policy of basically relying on domestic supply and steadily raised grain and agricultural productivity with the implementation of such policies and measures as stepping up financial investment, strengthening irrigation and water conservancy projects and accelerating the development of agricultural science and technology. China has managed to feed nearly 21% of the world's population with less than 9% of the world's farmland and achieved the MDG on poverty alleviation ahead of schedule.
While addressing our own food security challenge, the Chinese government has also provided agricultural assistance to the relevant developing countries within the framework of South-South cooperation to the best of its ability, including building agricultural technology demonstration centers and providing agricultural technical assistance and emergency humanitarian food assistance, thus making its own contribution to the improvement of food security in these developing countries.
5. Energy Security
Energy security has a close bearing on the stability and growth of the world economy and the well-being of people in all countries. Against the backdrop of the global financial crisis, ensuring energy security is vital to effectively tackling the impact of the crisis and promoting the full recovery and long-term development of the world economy.
To this end, the international community should foster a new energy security outlook featuring mutually beneficial cooperation, diversified development and coordinated supply. Joint efforts must be made to stabilize the prices of energy and other commodities and prevent excessive speculation and market hype, so as to meet the energy demands of all countries, particularly the developing countries, and maintain order in the energy market. Meanwhile, countries should improve their own energy mix, promote the research, development and diffusion of advanced technologies, vigorously develop clean and renewable energies, and actively advance international cooperation in relevant fields.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to issues of energy and energy security. In addressing these issues, we adhere to the principle of "giving priority to conservation, mainly relying on domestic supply, seeking diversified development and protecting the environment". We have strengthened mutually beneficial cooperation with the international community, made vigorous efforts to improve and adjust the energy mix and build a reliable, economical, clean and safe energy supply system, speeded up the building of a resources-conserving and environment-friendly society. Before the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference, China announced the target of increasing the share of non-fossil fuel in primary energy consumption to 15% and a 40-45% decrease of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP on the 2005 level by 2020. China is ready to work with other countries to establish a long-term energy cooperation mechanism and make its due contribution to ensuring global energy security and tackling climate change.
6. South-South Cooperation
South-South cooperation is an important channel for developing countries to draw on each other's strengths for common development, and an important means for meeting development challenges through mutual assistance. In recent years, South-South cooperation has made positive progress, and trade and investment flows between developing countries are thriving. Some new mechanisms and initiatives have been launched, injecting fresh vitality into South-South cooperation. South-South cooperation in its current shape is mainly defined by the following features: the momentum of cooperation is getting stronger, coordination mechanisms are growing in number, major developing countries are playing a driver's role, and South-South cooperation and North-South dialogue are becoming more frequent.
China believes that South-South cooperation is a form of win-win cooperation between developing countries. It is mutually beneficial, voluntary and unconditional, not the same as assistance. It is different from North-South cooperation and complements, rather than replaces, the latter. Developing countries should conduct vigorous consultation and coordination on major international issues, and take coordinated actions to uphold their legitimate rights and interests. They should, in the spirit of equality and mutual benefit, continue to explore new channels, content and models of cooperation in light of the evolving situation and their own needs. They should also enhance coordination and make full use of multilateral mechanisms to work for an equitable and just international political and economic order. Due to the impact of the international financial crisis, the development environment of the developing countries gives no reason for optimism. Under such circumstances, it is even more important for them to strengthen South-South cooperation against common challenges, pursue sound and sustained economic growth and strengthen the capacity of independent development.
7. Financing for Development
The inadequate financing for development has always been a major impediment to international development. This issue becomes more acute now that the global financial crisis has taken a heavy toll on low-income countries.
The pressing task is to establish a sound global development partnership featuring equality, mutual benefit and win-win progress, implement the Monterrey Consensus, and ensure that the MDGs are met on schedule. China calls for efforts in the following five areas: First, increase the resources and strengthen the institutions of development. Second, developed countries should deliver on their commitment to increase their official development assistance to 0.7% of their gross national income, and further reduce or cancel debts owed by developing countries and open markets to them. Third, endeavor to reduce the damage of the financial crisis on the developing countries, particularly the least developed countries, and take concrete actions to help them maintain financial stability and economic growth. Fourth, curb trade protectionism and make sure the Doha Round negotiations achieve its development objectives. Fifth, create a favorable external development environment for developing countries, and oppose the arbitrary imposition of economic, commercial and financial blockade on developing countries.
8. Doha Round Negotiations
To advance and bring to a successful conclusion the Doha Round negotiations serves the common interests of all parties as this will help consolidate and improve the multilateral trading regime, curtail trade protectionism, and promote global economic recovery and sustainable development.
China is committed to building a fair, equitable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading regime and has taken a constructive and positive approach toward the Doha Round negotiations. We call on all parties to demonstrate sufficient political will, advance the negotiations in real earnest, and uphold the credibility of the multilateral trading regime. China is open to all initiatives that will push forward the negotiations, but is against those that will deviate or detract from the multilateral trading regime. In our view, first we must uphold the Doha mandate and existing achievements. Second, we must adhere to its development goal and take into full account the interests and concerns of developing members, particularly the least developed countries. Third, we must work to eventually reach a package deal, which should be the goal of any effort aimed at an early harvest.
9. Reform of the International Financial System
In the wake of the international financial crisis, there has been consensus over the necessity to reform the current international financial system. China believes that the objective of the reform is to establish a fair, equitable, inclusive and well-managed new international financial order under the principles of being comprehensive, balanced, incremental, and results-oriented.
China believes it's important to work on the following four aspects: first, improve the international financial governance system and increase the voice and representation of emerging markets and developing countries; second, improve the international financial supervisory and regulatory regime, strengthen supervision over developed economies hosting important financial centers and their macroeconomic policies, strengthen regulation over cross-border capital flow and commodity derivatives, and reform the sovereign credit rating mechanism; third, improve the international monetary system, improve the reserve currency issuance regulatory mechanism, maintain the relative stability of major reserve currencies; fourth, strengthen the functions of international financial institutions in development and poverty reduction, and narrow the North-South gap.
10. Africa's Development
Africa's development bears on the fundamental interests of African people as well as peace, stability and development of the world. Maintaining stability and development in Africa is as much a common responsibility of the international community as a pressing task of African countries. The international community, developed countries in particular, should provide more support and help to Africa, honor the commitments of aid and enhance African countries' capacity for development. It should respect African countries' independent choice of development paths suited to their national conditions, support their efforts to independently address African issues and help the continent maintain and consolidate peace and stability so as to put its development on a solid footing. It should respect and support African countries' special concerns on sustainable development issues and take strong measures to help African countries tackle difficulties and challenges. It should also promote the building of a more just and equitable international political and economic order, take concrete measures to increase the voice and representation of Africa in the international financial system, expand Africa's effective participation in global governance and strengthen Africa's capacity to tackle such global challenges as the international financial crisis and climate change.
For decades, China has provided sincere help to African countries and continuously strengthened mutually beneficial cooperation, contributing positively to the economic and social development in Africa. China has introduced and implemented a series of cooperation measures in support of Africa's development within the framework of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC). At the UN High-Level Event on the MDGs in September 2010, China announced six measures of foreign assistance for the next five years of which African countries will be the main beneficiaries. At the 5th Ministerial Conference of the FOCAC in July 2012, China proposed a series of new measures supporting peace and development in Africa. China will implement these measures in earnest and continue to make its due contribution as African countries work to reduce poverty, improve people's life, enhance their capacity for independent development and realize sustainable development.
V. Arms Control, Disarmament and Non-Proliferation
1. China has consistently placed importance on and suppported international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, and stood for complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
China is firmly opposed to the proliferation of WMDs and their means of delivery, and strictly fulfills its international obligations and relevant commitments. To achieve the goal of non-proliferation, all countries should help build a global and regional security environment of mutual trust and cooperation, reduce the motivation for the proliferation of WMDs; resolve proliferation issues by political and diplomatic means; uphold and strengthen the international non-proliferation regime; and handle the relationship between non-proliferation and the peaceful use of science and technology in a balanced way and abandon double standards. China would like to step up exchanges and cooperation with all parties to move forward the international non-proliferation process.
China has consistently and actively advocated the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China is firmly committed to a nuclear strategy based on self-defence and has upheld its commitment that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons at any time and under any circumstances and that it would unconditionally refrain from using or threatening to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has exercised utmost restraint regarding the scale and development of its nuclear arsenal, never deployed nuclear weapons in other countries and never taken part in any form of nuclear arms race. China will continue to keep its nuclear force at the minimum level required for national security.
China supports the Geneva Conference on Disarmament (CD) in reaching agreement on a comprehensive and balanced program of work and starting considering substantive issues at an early date. China upholds the authority and effectiveness of the multilateral disarmament regime, supports the CD in launching negotiation on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty at an early date, always regards the CD as the only appropriate forum for negotiating the Treaty and has been working actively to promote consensus-building among the parties to bridge differences . China firmly supports the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and pushes for its early entry into force.
China believes that the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime. China welcomes the positive results of the 2010 review conference and hopes that the parties will make joint efforts to implement the final documents. In the current situation, the universality, authority and effectiveness of the NPT should be upheld and strengthened for it to play an even bigger role in preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons, promoting nuclear disarmament and the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
China takes seriously nuclear safety and security, opposes nuclear terrorism, supports increasing relevant international cooperation and welcomes progress made in this regard at the Washington Nuclear Security Summit of 2010 and the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit of 2012. China stands ready to work with all parties to actively implement the results achieved at the aforementioned summits.
China maintains that safety should come first in the use of nuclear energy. China supports the international community in taking concrete measures to enhance nuclear safety and conducting international cooperation to promote the sound and sustainable development of nuclear energy.
2. China supports the purposes and objectives of both the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC). China has fully and strictly fulfilled its obligations under the two Conventions and supports the enhancement of their universality. China finds regretable that relevant states parties that possess chemical weapons and those that abandoned such weapons on the territories of other states parties failed to complete the destruction process before the scheduled deadline of the CWC, and urges such countries to follow relevant decisions of the Conference of the States Parties and the Executive Council and make further efforts to complete the destruction according to the timetable of relevant decisions and destruction plans. The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) should effectively supervise the destruction process. China will take an active and constructive part in the Third Review Conference of the States Parties of the CWC and continue to make its own efforts to promote the comprehensive and balanced implementation of the Convention. China has worked with other States Parties of the BWC in actively pushing for consensus at the Seventh Review Conference of the Convention and will continue to promote the constructive role of the BWC in diffusing the threat of biological weapons, preventing their proliferation and enhancing the peaceful use of biotechnology.
3. China stands for the peaceful use of outer space and opposes arms race in or the introduction of weapons into outer space. China maintains that the international community should conclude relevant international legal instruments as soon as possible to fundamentally remove security threats to outer space. China values the positive role of the Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures (TCBM) in safeguarding security in outer space, supports the principle of "inclusiveness and complementarity" in promoting the prevention of arms race and the TCBM process in outer space. China will take a constructive part in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Outer Space TCBM.
4. China believes that information security is a common challenge facing the international community. The pressing task is for countries to conduct practical and effective international cooperation and jointly build a peaceful, secure, cooperative and open cyberspace. Formulating international rules on cyber security will be an effective way to achieve this goal, and the United Nations should play a central role in the relevant process. China, Russia, Tajikstan and Uzbekistan proposed a draft "International Code of Conduct on Information Security" at the UN General Assembly in 2011. We hope that the international community will have in-depth discussions on this issue within the framework of the Group of Governmental Experts on the Issue of Information Security and reach agreement at an early date.
5. China attaches importance to military transparency and is committed to enhancing mutual trust in the military field with other countries. In 2007, China joined the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures and returned to the UN Register of Conventional Arms. China has taken a constructive and active part in the work of the UN Group of Governmental Experts on Military Expenditures Transparency.
6. China attaches importance to the humanitarian issues in the field of arms control and actively commits itself to enhancing the universality and effectiveness of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocols. China has taken a constructive part in the negotiations of the CCW Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Cluster Munitions. China has actively engaged in international de-mining assistance and helped free relevant countries from the plague of landmines. China has been an active participant in the Arms Trade Treaty process and supports the international community in taking necessary measures to properly regulate arms trade, and prevent and crack down upon the illegal transfer and trafficking of conventional weapons. China supports the international efforts in combating illicit trade in small arms and light weapons and earnestly implements the United Nations Program of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects and the International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons.
VI. Human Rights
Governments of all countries in the world are duty-bound to promote and protect human rights in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and relevant provisions of the international instruments on human rights, taking into account their respective national conditions. The international community should recognize that all human rights are indivisible and attach equal importance to the realization of the economic, social and cultural rights, the civil and political rights, and the right to development. Due to different national conditions, countries have taken different approaches to and adopted different models on human rights. There is no one-size-fits-all model.
The Chinese government is an active advocate of international cooperation in the field of human rights. We stand for constructive dialogue and exchanges on the basis of equality and mutual respect in order to enhance mutual understanding and mutual learning. We oppose politicizing human rights issues and adopting double standards.
China always plays an active and constructive part in the work of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) and the Third Committee of the UN General Assembly. China is ready to work with other parties to ensure that the HRC and the Third Committee abide by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner.
VII. Social Issues
1. Transnational Crimes
With the development of economic globalization, transnational crimes, such as the production and trafficking of illicit drugs, trafficking in persons, money laundering, corruption, and cyber espionage and attacks pose serious threats to economic development and public order in various countries and present challenges to regional peace and stability.
Strengthening international cooperation to prevent and combat various transnational organized crime is not only the common need and general consensus of the international community but also a shared, unshirkable responsibility of all countries. The United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption are major achievements of the international community in the fight against transnational crimes. The international community should, in accordance with the purposes and spirit of the Conventions, strengthen cooperation on the basis of mutual respect.
Having ratified the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, the Chinese government places high importance on honoring its relevant international obligations in real earnest and has taken a series of legislative, administrative and judicial measures. China has actively engaged in international cooperation, including the sound cooperation with UN agencies and relevant international and regional organizations, and vigorous bilateral cooperation with countries concerned in police and judicial matters. The Chinese government issued and implemented the China National Plan of Action on Combating Trafficking in Women and Children (2008-2012), and established an inter-ministerial joint conference system within the State Council. By now, China has signed with over 60 countries more than 110 judicial assistance treaties, many of which cover criminal judicial assistance. It has also stepped up efforts to crack down on organized crime through a series of special law enforcement operations. China is ready to continue to work with the international community to strengthen cooperation to combat various kinds of transnational organized crime.
HIV/AIDS is a serious human health hazard and an impediment to the economic and social development of all countries. To prevent and control HIV/AIDS is an urgent task of the international community and an important dimension of the MDGs.
The international community, especially the developed countries, should do more to help the developing countries strengthen their capacity of HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and other international institutions should increase coordination and play a greater role in helping developing countries fight HIV/AIDS.
The Chinese government has taken a series of measures to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, worked hard to increase the level of rights protection of those living with HIV/AIDS, strengthened the awareness of the whole of society to care for HIV-infected people and AIDS patients, and it encouraged and supported the work of social organizations in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. In 2012, the Chinese government issued the China's 12th Five-Year Action Plan on Containment and Control of HIV/AIDS, setting the targets of reducing the number of new HIV infections by 25 percent and the AIDS-related mortality rate by 30 percent by the end of 2015 from the levels of 2000. China is ready to actively participate in global initiatives and actions to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, share its experience and provide support and help to others within the scope of its capabilities.
2. Public Health Security
Public health security bears on the health and safety of people of all countries. To ensure global public health security is a shared responsibility of the international community. Governments of all countries should continue to enhance public health capacity building in order to provide effective health services and promote coordinated and sustainable economic and social development.
The Chinese government puts the people first, attaches great importance to public health and is now deepening the reform of the medical and healthcare system. China is ready to make joint efforts with all countries and relevant international organizations to strengthen the exchanges and sharing of information, experience and technology and deepen cooperation to better tackle global public health challenges and enhance people's physical and mental health.
Corruption has become a transnational phenomenon that affects the political, economic and social development of countries across the world. The only way to effectively control and punish corruption is to have full and comprehensive international cooperation. The United Nations Convention Against Corruption, an international legal instrument on fighting corruption worldwide, demonstrates the common will and resolve of the international community to curb corruption and has positive significance for promoting domestic efforts as well as international cooperation against corruption. The role of this Convention as the main channel in the international fight against corruption should be fully valued and utilized. Other anti-corruption mechanisms or frameworks at the international level should not replace, weaken or alter the principles and institutions established by the Convention.
China attaches great importance to anti-corruption cooperation. As a signatory of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption, China will fully and earnestly honor its obligations under the Convention, facilitate the effective role of the relevant institutions of the Convention and enhance effective cooperation with all countries and international organizations on the basis of mutual respect for sovereignty, equality and mutual benefit.
VIII. UN Financing
Sustained and steady financial support is an important guarantee for the smooth operation of the UN. All member states should, in accordance with the spirit of the Charter of the United Nations and the principle of "capacity to pay" set out in UNGA resolutions, continue to earnestly fulfill their financial obligations by paying assessments for both regular budget and peacekeeping operations on time, in full and without conditions to ensure a solid and stable financial footing for the UN.
The efficiency in the use of UN resources should be further enhanced through integration of resources and programs with full consideration and accommodation given to the legitimate concerns and demands of developing countries. Member states should step up coordination and communication to improve work efficiency and give more guidance to the Secretariat in program coordination and budget.
The principle of "capacity to pay" should be strictly adhered to in the preparation of the scale of assessments. Reasonable adjustments should be allowed to ensure that all member states are assessed according to their actual capacity to pay. The scale of assessments and the methodology should be kept relatively stable and free from substantial modification so as to ensure the stable and solid financial footing of the UN and the smooth operation of UN agencies.
China has always honored its financial obligations to the UN in a responsible manner. China is still a developing country, however, as its economy continues to grow, it stands ready to make a greater contribution to the UN budget on the basis of the principle of "capacity to pay".
VIII. Rule of Law
1. The Rule of Law at the National and International Levels
It is the goal of all countries to achieve the rule of law at the national and international levels. At the national level, countries are entitled to independently choose the models of rule of law that suit their national conditions and may draw on the strengths of other models in the light of their own realities. To strengthen the rule of law at the international level, it is necessary to uphold the authority of the Charter of the United Nations, strictly abide by the universally recognized principles and rules of international law such as sovereign equality, non-interference in others' internal affairs and the peaceful settlement of international disputes. We should uphold the consistent application of international law, avoid double standards and continuously improve international law-making process and promote democracy in international relations.
2. The International Court of Justice
China supports an enhanced role of the International Court of Justice in the peaceful settlement of international disputes and hopes that the Court will make a greater contribution to safeguarding a stable international order and promoting international rule of law. China consistently supports the peaceful settlement of international disputes and respects the right of each country to independently choose the method of peaceful settlement of disputes.
3. The International Criminal Court
China is always concerned with the development of international criminal justice and supports the establishment of an independent, impartial, effective and universally recognized institution of international criminal justice as a complement to domestic legal systems to punish the most serious international crimes, advance world peace and promote judicial justice.
China always pays close attention to the work of the International Criminal Court. China hopes that the Court will win trust and respect of the international community through objective and impartial performance of its duty and contribute to upholding world peace and security and promoting the development of criminal justice.